Parent-Management Training

posted Nov 13, 2017, 5:13 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Nov 22, 2017, 11:04 PM ]

Therapist Piyali Misquitta leading a group in Parent Management Training

Parent Management Training I/IV

Piyali Misquitta, MA Clinical Psychology

Parent Management Training is an interactive training program spread across 4 weeks of workshop consisting of one hour each week. The training is aimed at skill development and practical application of behaviour modification for parents to improve challenging behaviours of their child(ren), and any associated conditions that may be present.

Parents learnt how to go about stimulating desirable behaviours in their child. They facilitated an environment such that the desirable behaviours become second nature. Parents received hands-on experience on how to manage their child’s problems in a functional way. This reduces the chances of recurrence of unwanted behaviours like temper tantrums, crying before school and not doing homework.

Parent Management Training is a one of a kind workshop aimed at creating a facilitative environment for your child. It minimizes external problems and internal issues that the child may be facing. Peer support and social support and interaction with therapists helped parents through the problems that they faced with their child.

Behaviour Modification—ABC

posted Nov 13, 2017, 5:13 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Nov 23, 2017, 1:46 AM ]

ABC chart

Parent Management Training II/IV

Piyali Misquitta, MA Clinical Psychology - Leader

Nishtha Buddhiraj, MA Clinical Psychology - Therapist

Shreya Joshi, MA Clinical Psychology - Therapist

Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence—ABC model of behaviour analysis was introduced in the second Parenting group session. In the ABC model an antecedent is something that comes before behaviour, and may trigger that behaviour. A behaviour is anything an individual does. A consequence is something that follows the behaviour.

A child strolling in the mall with his parents comes across an aisle of chocolate bars (antecedent). He throws a tantrum (behaviour), insisting his parents buy the chocolate for him. The parent buys the chocolate to quiet the child (consequence). The parent’s attention to the tantrum, and buying the chocolate for the child reinforces or rewards the behaviour of throwing a temper tantrum. This model is very helpful to identify problem behaviours; to modify them and to focus on the positive ones by reinforcing the desired behaviour.

Parents were first asked to identify undesirable behaviour and think of a desirable behaviour that they would like to substitute; it with.For example ‘unsatisfactory study time’ to ‘daily study time for half an hour’ , 'getting into fights' to ‘playing cooperatively’. Any behaviour tending towards the desired behaviour should be rewarded, to reinforce it. Immediate reinforcement can be given like praise, or a reward sheet can be used to keep a track of the desired behaviour (e.g give them stars, or points) on a daily basis. At the end of the week, the child can be rewarded with something that he/she is quite fond of, e.g a comic book, toy, or game, depending upon the total sum of points earned.

The desired behaviour can be directed using a conducive antecedent. For example changes in the daily time table can be made upon discussing with the child, and constructive prompts or instructions can be given to him/her to bring out the desirable behaviour. The instructions given should be short or given in parts, should have minimal words and be more action oriented , negative sentences should be avoided (e.g Don’t talk so loudly’, Don’t throw your things everywhere’). Instructions can be rephrased to ‘talk softly’, ‘good girls keep their things neatly’.

Once the child is able to pull off simpler tasks of the desired behaviour, the difficulty of the task can be raised or the reward can be upgraded. This way the child is not overwhelmed by a parent’s expectation to ‘do’ the desired behaviour immediately, and has a lasting pay off.

The ABC model equips parents with skills to manage undesirable behaviours and facilitate change to desirable behaviours in children with ADHD.

Domestic Violence Manifesting as Depression

posted Oct 16, 2017, 10:48 PM by Piyali Misquitta   [ updated Oct 16, 2017, 10:50 PM ]

Domestic Violence Manifesting as Depression

Piyali Misquitta, MA Clinical Psychology

The psychological impact of domestic violence, and response to intervention is illustrated by this case. Targetting inaccuarate and unhelpful thoughts through CBT helps clients manage their emotions better and encourage problem-solving behaviours.

A 30-year-old married woman, TN approached Pathfinder Clinic alone with concerns of tearfulness, sadness, guilt, and anxiety. She was especially worried that her thoughts and mood were interfering in her work, and that she would be asked to leave. Further enquiry revealed a history of physical violence by her husband. This information helped provide a context for the distress she was experiencing: she felt sad and guilty about the deterioration of her marriage, and often blamed herself for the situation she was in. When she considered the options for her future, she felt anxious and unable to take a decision. She also reported that she had suicidal thoughts, especially when she was distressed.

Psychological assessments revealed severe depression and anxiety, and also that TN was very concerned with what others people thought of her. This concern was then addressed during consequent sessions of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), which helped her make an independent decision about what was best for her future. She learned how to deal with conflict with her husband, and put her own requests forward in an assertive way. CBT also helped her re-evaluate the guilt she was experiencing, and reduce self-blame. With regular sessions of CBT and medication, TN reported doing much better at work, and felt confident about her decision to leave her husband. She was also able to identify old hobbies that she used to enjoy, and incorporate them into her schedule.

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing—CISD

posted Jul 18, 2017, 2:32 AM by Piyali Misquitta   [ updated Jul 18, 2017, 3:02 AM ]

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing—CISD

Piyali Misquitta, MA Clinical Psychology

CISD (Critical Incident Stress Debriefing) was conducted at the  office of a software company in Pune by Piyali Misquitta. A team of 15 members were present for the debriefing, including Lynette Nazareth (CGP) and a representative from the HR department. The session was planned in response to the unexpected death of a young team member three days before the session. 

The stress debrief began with an overview of basic guidelines which established the tone of the session, with an emphasis on confidentiality. Next, the facts of the incident were elicited from the team members, and most shared what they knew. This facilitated an understanding of the members who were most impacted by the incident, as well as clarifying the facts of the incident for everyone present at the session. 

Reactions to the incident were elicited from the group, focusing on the distressing thoughts, emotions, and physical sensations. The use of standardised scales for trauma and general health aided the discussion. The group then moved to the educational aspect of the session. The emphasis on this session was on validating the experiences of different people within the group, and acknowledging that distressing and unusual reactions are expected in highly stressful and unusual situations like present one. In addition, members were advised self-care and to prevent avoidance of anxiety-related events. A Quality of Life Scale helped identify areas in their life that needed attention. 

A report of the scores was handed to the members at the end of the session. Members with high distress levels were advised to seek personal counselling.

ADHD—Psychoeducation I/IV

posted Jul 5, 2017, 5:51 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Jul 5, 2017, 5:57 AM ]

Presentation for Thursday (06-Jul-17)

Psychoeducation for ADHD

By Nishtha Buddhiraja, MSc Psychology

For parents of children that are diagnosed with ADHD.

Information about ADHD and coping with disorder. Management and support group information will also be provided. This is the first of four modules each an hour long. Sessions include activities and videos to make it easier to remember and apply knowledge about ADHD.

Psychoeducation is the process of providing knowledge, awareness and information to the individual who is suffering from mental illness and their immediate group of people. The immediate group of people often includes parents, teachers, caregivers, family, close relatives and friends. The aim of is to impart scientific knowledge over ancient and faulty theories. The basic purpose behind psychoeducation is to deal with problems associated with the illness and management of maladaptive behaviour in case of troublesome events. An overview of the possible treatment plans is also given with psychoeducation.

This module is specifically designed for parents of children that are diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD is a neuropsychiatric condition which is characterised by an inability to control behaviours like hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Not only will the information be given about ADHD and coping with it, information on its management and support groups will be provided. The module is divided into 4 1-hour long sessions which include activities and videos to make it easier to remember and apply knowledge about ADHD.

Workshop on IQ

posted May 19, 2017, 12:21 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated May 19, 2017, 10:17 PM ]

IQ workshop dates, venue, faculty and contact number
Assessment of IQ Workshop for Psychologists

IQ Workshop for Psychologists

Registration is open for the IQ Workshop for Psychologists. This workshop will benefit psychologists who have just completed their masters degree and seek to gain practical experience in IQ testing and assessment.

Dates

Day 1     Sunday     04 Jun 2017     (9:00am to 5:00pm) 
Day 2    Sunday      11 Jun 2017      (9:00am to 5:00pm) 

Venue

Pathfinder Clinic
S-5 (2nd flr) Destination Centre 
Magarpatta City 
Pune - 411028

Registration Fee

Rs 2500
(includes tea and vegeterian  lunch on both days)

Contact

Ms Shalini Prakash 020-66069676

Faculty

  1. Dr Neville Misquitta MD Psychiatry
  2. Dr Bharti Rajguru PhD Clinical Psychology
  3. Ms Piyali Misquitta MA Clinical Psychology

Work Style Assessment

posted Jul 20, 2015, 10:48 PM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Jul 27, 2015, 7:13 PM ]

work style assessment

Work Style Assessment

What is work style?

Work style is a blend of special personality traits that pertain to the workplace. These traits include initiative, integrity, leadership, stress tolerance, analytical thinking, and interpersonal skills. Working style describes how you act as you carry out your work roles. Work is a domain in which personalities connect in many ways. When you describe people as being cooperative, or assertive, you are talking about their work styles.

How are work styles assessed?

Working style is assessed with a set of standard questions. Based on your answers a profile of your strengths is prepared. This profile is used to explore global career options. Your personality traits can then be matched to those of hundreds of jobs listed in the O*NET index. With this you can choose a job that uses all your unique strengths and abilities.

At Pathfinder Clinic working style assessment offers insight into five core areas of job performance and their related work style behaviours:

Performance Area
Work Style Behaviour

Achieving results (drive)

achievement, initiative, persuasiveness, confidence

Dealing with people (interpersonal skills) 

leadership, cooperation, concern for others, social orientation

Solving problems (problem solving skills) 

independence, innovation, analytical skills

Adjustment                (self management) 

self control, stress tolerance, adaptability

Responsibility       (work ethic) 

dependability, attention to detail, integrity, conscientiousness

Work styles in career planning

Understand reasons for dissatisfaction with your present job. Each of us has a distinct work personality. Personality predicts outcomes like job performance and job satisfaction. A mismatch between your work apporach and that required by the job can be a source of burnout and job dissatisfaction. Understanding why you are not happy in your present job will help you take corrective actions.
I joined the MNC of my dreams. Now I feel like a clerk. There is no room for ideas or initiative.
I don’t think I can succeed at sales work. The pressure and hustle make me very tense.

Identify alternate occupations based on your work approach. Career choice is an area in which work style assessment is essential.With work styles assessment you are then better able to spot occupations that are likely to be satisfying.
I’ve done my Engineering and need to pursue higher studies – should I go in for a PhD or an MBA?
I am stuck in this job since 10 years. I want a change. Do I have what it takes to succeed on my own?
My son is keen on forensic anthropology. The field is novel. Is he suited for it?
Employee selection to match 'soft-skill' requirements of the job. Managers who are hiring can define working styles they value in employees. From a pool of qualified job seekers they can make a final selection based on the extent to which they possess the required working styles. Matching employee work style with job requirements leads to top performance and job satisfaction.
I run a fitness centre. Four people are on the shortlist for my reception post. Which person would be my best choice?

Work styles assessment is a study of your work personality. It gives an insight into how you work with others, your mindset, and your work ethic. It will help you to think about how you act and respond to events in your workplace.

Assess Your Work Style Today

What Works for You?
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Importance of Work

posted Jun 3, 2015, 5:48 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Jun 3, 2015, 7:26 AM ]

importance of work
Work occupies a third of adult life

The Importance of Work

The importance of work is through its impact on three key aspects of life.
  1. We spend a third of adult life at work. Through work we add to our growth and well-being, and also that of our families and of society.
  2. Work provides the income and outputs for meeting the needs of life.
  3. Work has a positive impact on our mental, social, and physical health. It adds to to our confidence and personal self-esteem. Work gives us social status and a sense of social responsibility. Work keeps us mentally alert and physically active.
Carefully consider the work you choose with the help of a reliable aptitude test given this importance of work. Income is important but should not be the sole criteria for career choice. Income is just one of the reasons for which we need to work. If income is the only purpose of work, work becomes a chore, something to avoid or to finish in a hurry. There is no drive, no sense of achievement, no pride in doing the work well. Spending a third of one's adult life in work that is disliked adversely impacts psychological, social, and physical health and well-being. Burnout, absenteeism, employee attrition, depression and work-stress related disorders are the end products.

Career choices you make today decide who your friends will be, which area or city you will stay in, and even who you will marry. This adds to the importance of work and makes it essential to choose a career with consideration. However, even after decades of progress in aptitude testing we still believe that career decisions ‘just happen naturally’. Most young people take the path of least resistance. They follow family and friends or their peers at school. They have no exposure to real-world work. They have no idea what the work in a particular profession actually is. Unreal expectations lead to disappointment, frustration, absenteeism, or depression early in their careers. Career choices veer towards high prestige jobs –e.g doctors, engineers– while ignoring an aptitude for clerical or mechanical work.

When two people of equal intelligence, and undergo similar training, why does one master the knowledge or skill easily, while the other take longer to do so? This is because they differ in their aptitude for that particular work. A reliable aptitude test helps in career guidance. A blend of aptitude, interest, and training helps place the right person in the right job.

The work you do must exercise all your abilities to reap the benefits of a life well lived. You will be happier, stay motivated and last longer at work that uses your specific abilities, and that is suitable for your personality. You will be more willing and able to overcome the challenges that are part of any work. Success, promotions and income would then be likely to follow. A well designed and reliable aptitude test will help you choose a suitable career, and is essential given the importance of work.

References

  1. WHO. Global strategy on occupational health for all: The way to health at work. 11-14-Oct-1994. Accessed 10-May-2015.
  2. Stanford University News Service. How people choose 'career paths'. 28-May-1991. Accessed 02-Jun-2015.

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What is aptitude testing?
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3 essential life skills for teenagers

posted Nov 8, 2014, 2:52 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Nov 24, 2014, 6:55 PM ]

life skills for teenagers
Parenting can inculcate life skills in teenagers and ease transition to adulthood

Life skills are abilities that promote mental well-being and competence in teenagers and young people as they face the realities of life. They enable the teen to make rational decisions in problem solving, communicate effectively and manage their emotions and behaviours so as to participate constructively in society.

Ajay’s parents are distraught as their intelligent teen has four backlogs in college. He may not be allowed to appear in his third semester exam for poor attendance. His parents had anxiously provided him every external support at home so he could focus just on studies for his board exams. They did not foresee how their efforts to manage, support, and fix Ajay’s problems were preventing their teen from mastering the life skills he would need to be effective as a teenager in college and as an adult in later life.

Life skills for teenagers

  1. Critical thinking and decision making – the analytical skills for problem solving. This includes the ability to gather information, evaluate consequences of actions, and define alternate solutions.
  2. Interpersonal skills and communication – includes verbal and non-verbal communication, and the ability to manage conflict. Interpersonal skills are a key requirement for teamwork. These skills are the foundation for adult social behaviour.
  3. Coping and self-management skills are essential for a sense of self-control, self-awareness and goal setting. The ability to handle loss, anxiety and frustration depends on these skills. Stress and time management are key abilities in this component.

Responsible parents foster an environment of independence by introducing the concept of daily chores from childhood. Many bright teenagers have difficulties when they enter college without adequate coping and self-management life skills. Gradually handing over tasks such as getting up on their own in the morning, scheduling activities, and doing the laundry lay the foundation for work-life balance in adulthood. Guiding their teenager in his efforts at working through the daily chores while demanding focus on his studies, provides parents with opportunities to teach and learn problem solving, interpersonal communication and coping life skills that are essential for independent living in society.

Reference

  1. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Life Skills Training Guide for Young People. United Nations. 2003 (Accessed 08-Nov-2014)
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Mental Health Awareness Week – MHAW

posted Oct 22, 2014, 3:51 AM by Neville Misquitta   [ updated Mar 27, 2015, 7:00 AM ]

Dr Neville Misquitta, Mental Health Awareness Week (MHAW)
Dr Neville Misquitta at MHAW, Mumbai

Mental Health Awareness Week at Carter Road, Mumbai was hosted in a public park without barriers to any citizen who happened to be on that stretch of Mumbai over those two days. Mental health conferences and events are mostly attended by mental health professionals, and occasionally by caregivers – indirectly affected by mental health problems of their loved ones. At the MHAW event a subset of people, who might never have considered mental health even as a concept, were made aware.

Mental health awareness and stigma

One in ten children has a mental illness that impairs academic performance. However, few are recognised and fewer receive treatment. The World Health Organization indicates that psychiatric disorders will be one of the five most common illnesses among children by 2020. 

My talk on Mental Health and Academic Performance in Children highlighted the mental health problems that impact the future livelihood of these children through adverse career outcomes. Teachers and students were concerned with the modalities of dealing with ADHD, learning disorders, cannabis use, and other disorders of children and adolescents. 

Educating the public about mental health and mental illness in children is a key concern. Mental Health Awareness Week is a major opportunity for promoting child and adolescent mental health and for mitigating the risk factors of mental illness.

Mental Health Awareness Week is held in the first full week of October every year since 1990. It coincides with World Mental Health Day on 10th October. The stigma of mental illness is a major barrier to seeking treatment. 

Stigma is of three types:
  1. Public stigma - the harmful effects of prejudice and discrimination by the general population
  2. Self-stigma - the harmful effects of prejudice which people with mental illness turn against themselves
  3. Label avoidance - avoiding stigma by not seeking mental health services from which labels or diagnosis are obtained. 

Challenging mental illness stigma is essential for helping individuals to attain recovery. Mental Health Awareness Week programs seek to erase public stigma and label avoidance through education, and contact.

References

  1. US Department of Health and Human Services; US Department of Education; US Department of Justice. Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health: A National Action Agenda. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.
  2. Patrick W Corrigan and Amy C Watson. Understanding the impact of stigma on people with mental illness. World Psychiatry. 2002 February; 1(1): 16–20.
  3. Patrick Corrigan. A toolkit for evaluating programs meant to erase the stigma of mental illness (Revised). Illinois institute of Technology. 2012
  4. Corrigan, Patrick W, and Abigail Wassel. Understanding and influencing the stigma of mental illness. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services 46.1 (2008): 42-48.

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